Library – Useful Fog & Related Scientific Papers

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The papers presented here each have a copyright restriction on their use. They are made available for your own personal research purposes. They may not be copied for commercial purposes and may not be inserted, in whole or in part, into other documents without the permission of the copyright holder. Reference to the ideas of the authors of the papers should be properly cited in your publications.
Notes on This Section

This section represents a considerable effort on the part of the volunteer staff of FogQuest to provide an archive of original reports and published papers related to fog collection. In many cases, it is likely that no other copies of the reports are available. We do not endorse the statements in each document or the conclusions reached by the authors.

Visitors to this site should make their own critical examination of the results and conclusions. This is especially true of non-peer-reviewed documents such as theses and institutional reports. Several lengthy lists of references on fog collection can also be found elsewhere on the FogQuest website.


Contents:

Overview studies
Conference Proceedings
Useful Fog & Related Scientific Papers
Theses related to Fog Collection

Papers per Country
Cabo Verde (Cape Verde) Canada Canary Islands (Tenerife)
Chile Colombia Dominican Republic
Ecuador Ethiopia Eritrea
Guatemala Haiti Israel
Jordan Kenya Mexico
Morocco Namibia Nepal
Oman (Sultanate of Oman) Peru Saudi Arabia
South Africa Spain St. Helena
USA, California, Hawaii Venezuela Yemen

Comparative Studies
Chile – Namibia – Oman Chile – Peru – Oman Chile – California
France – Tunisia

USEFUL FOG & RELATED SCIENCE PAPERS

Abu-Zreig, M., M. Attom and N. Hamasha, 2000: Rainfall Harvesting Using Sand Ditches in Jordan. Agricultural Water Management, 46, pp 183 – 192.

Acosta Baladon, A.N., 1995: Agricultural uses of all occult precipitation. Agrometeorological Applications Associates, Ornex, France, pp 164.

Anonymous, 19xx: Areas of Fog in Central America and the Caribbean Region. pp 36. [17 countries are discussed]

Barrie, L.A. and R.S. Schemenauer, 1986: Pollutant wet deposition mechanisms in precipitation and fog water. Water, Air and Soil Pollution (USA, California, Hawaii), 30, 91-104

Baumgartner, A.,  1958: Nebel und Nebelniederschlag als Standortsfaktoren am Grossen Falkenstein (Bayerischer Wald). Forst-Wissenschaftliches Centralblatt, Sept/Oct, Vol 9/10, pp 257-272.

Betts, A., 1899: Irrigation by Wire. Monthly Weather Review, XXVII, July, 1899, No. 7, pp 301-302. [Proposes and measures fog drip by wire fences. Comments also provided.]

Betts, A., 1899: Irrigation by Wire. Monthly Weather Review, XXVII, October, 1899, No. 7, pp 301-302. [Proposes and measures fog drip by wire fences. Comments also provided.]

Borelli, J., J. M. Gregory and W. Abtew, 1989: Wind Barriers: A Reevaluation of Height, Spacing, and Porosity. Transactions of the ASAE, 32, November – December, pp 2023 – 2027. [Looks at barrier porosity and its relationship to the fraction of upstream wind produced by the barrier. This has applications to fog collectors.]

Brandenburg Technical University, 1999: Cloud and Air Characteristics and the Scientific Activities at the Brocken Station. Pp 24. [This is the history and overview of the development of the first cloud chemistry research monitoring station in Europe on Mt Brocken in the Harz Mountains of Germany.]

Bresci, E.2001: Fog Collector Influence on the Wind Velocity Field. Conference Proceedings Volume, 2nd International Conference on Fog and Fog Collection. Eds. R.S. Schemenauer and H. Puxbaum, St. John’s, Canada, 15-20 July, 2001, ISBN 0-9683887-1-X, pp 219 – 222.

Bresci, E., 2001: Wind Tunnel Experiments on Fog Collectors. Conference Proceedings Volume, 2nd International Conference on Fog and Fog Collection. Eds. R.S. Schemenauer and H. Puxbaum, St. John’s, Canada, 15-20 July, 2001, ISBN 0-9683887-1-X, pp 251 – 254.

Broza, M. 1979: Ben Nevis Observatory: Dew, Fog and Hygroscopic Food as a Source of Water for Desert Arthropods. Journal of Arid Environments, 2, pp 43 – 49.

Buchanan, J. Y., 1902: Meteorology of Ben Nevis in Clear and in Foggy Weather. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 42, pp 465-477.

Buchanan, J. Y., 1905: Ben Nevis Observatory: Mean Number of Times the Summit Was Clear of Fog or Mist for the 20 Years, 1884 – 1903. Transactions of the Royal Society Edinburgh, 43, p 499.

BRUN, R.J., W. LEWIS, P. J. PERKINS, and J. S. SERAFINI, c 1950: IMPINGEMENT OF CLOUD DROPLETS ON A CYLINDER AND PROCEDURE FOR MEASURING LIQUID.WATER CONTENT AND DROPLET SIZES IN SUPERCOOLED CLOUDS BY ROTATING MULTICYLINDER METHOD. Lewis flight propulsion laboratory Cleveland, Ohio, REPORT 1215.

Carr, A.F., 1949: La Montana Llorona. Science Monthly, 68, pp 225-234. [The Weeping Mountain. A cloud forest in Honduras.]

Castellano, S., G.S. Mugnozza, G. Russo, D. Briassoulis, A. Mistriotis, S. Hemming and D. Waaijenberg, : DESIGN AND USE CRITERIA OF NETTING SYSTEMS FOR AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION IN ITALY. J. of Ag. Eng. – Riv. di Ing. Agr. (2008), 3, 31-42. [Good overview of how mesh is manufactured as well as a discussion of Raschel mesh.]

Cavelier, J., D. Solis and M. A. Jaramilo, 1996: Fog interception in montane forests across the central cordillera of Panama. Journal of tropical ecology, 12, pp 357 – 369.

Cereceda, P., A. Cruzat, J. Ossandon and R. Schemenauer, 1996: Prospection, Evaluation and Construction of Fog Water Collection Systems. Report for International Development Research Centre Canada, prepared in Santiago, Chile, August 1996 pp 43.

Colomb, M., K. Hirech, P. Andre, J. J. Boreux, P. Lacote and J. Dufour, 2008: An innovative artificial fog production device improved in the European project “FOG”. Atmospheric Research, 87, special issue: 3rd International Conference on Fog, Fog Collection and Dew. Eds. S. M. Berkowicz, H. Rautenbach and J. Olivier, pp 242 – 251.

Comtois, P. and R.S. Schemenauer, 1991: Tree pollen viability in areas of high pollutant deposition. Aerobiologia (Italy), 7, 144-151.

Collett, J.L., B.C. Daube, J.W. Munger and M.R. Hoffmann, 1990: A Comparison of Two Cloudwater/Fogwater Collectors: The Rotating Arm Collector and the Caltech Active Strand Cloud Water Collector. Atmospheric environment, 24A, No 7, pp 1685 – 1692.

Court, A. And R. D. Gerston, 1966: Fog Frequency in the United States. The Geographical Review, 56, No. 4, oct 1966, pp 543 – 550.

Dieckmann, A., 1931: Versuch zur Niederschlagsmessung aus treibendum Nebel. Meteorologische Zeitschrift, 48, Oct., pp 400-402. [English translation of: An attempt to measure precipitation from drifting fog.]

Dieckmann, A., 1931: Versuch zur Niederschlagsmessung aus treibendum Nebel. Meteorologische Zeitschrift, 48, Oct., pp 400-402. {Original German version}.

Descombes, P., 1919: Sur le concours des arbres pour soutier de l’eau a l’atmosphere. Academie des Sciences, Séance de 8 December 1919, France, pp 1106-1108. [ On the ability of trees to hold water from the atmosphere. A note from Paul Descombes, presented by M. Schloesing.]

Evenari, M., L. Shanan, N. Tadmor and Y. Aharoni, 1961: Ancient Agriculture in the Negev. Science, 133, Number 3457, 31 March, pp 979 – 996. [Archaeological studies and experimental farms show how agriculture was possible in Israel’s famous desert]

Evenare M., L. Shanan and N. H. Tadmor, 1971: Runoff Agriculture in the Negev Desert of Israel. Food, Five or and the Arid Lands, Editors: McGinnies, Goldman and Paylore, The University Of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona, pp 311 – 322.

Fernandez, D., et al. (10 authors), 2016: Mesh intercomparisons of fog water collected yield insight into the nature of fog-drip collection mechanisms. AGU 2016 A23E-0280 poster.

Fernandez, D. M. et al. (10 authors), 2018: Fog Water Collection Effectiveness: Mesh Intercomparisons. Aerosol and Air-Quality Research, 18, Issue  1, January. pp 270 – 283.

Fourcade, H.G., 1942: Some Notes on the Effects of the Incidence of Rain on the Distribution of Rainfall over the Surface of Unlevel Ground. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa, 29, pp 235 – 254.

Fourcade, H.G., 1945: A Note on Multiple Rain-Gauges. Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 26, Number II, October, 1945, pp 267 – 268.

Franceschetti, G. ed.: 2000: The Use of Fog as a new water resource, possible applications. UNIPRESS, Italy, 2001, pp 73.

Gabriel, G. and L. Jauze, 2008: Fog water interception by Sophora denudata trees in a Reunion upper-montane forest, Indian Ocean. Atmospheric Research 87 (2008) 338–351.

Gardiner, V., 1977: A Further Note on the Contribution of Fog Drip to Streamflow. Weather, 32, No 4, pp 146 – 148.

Gischler, C., 1991: The Missing Link in a production Chain, vertical obstacles to catch Camanchaca. UNESCO Regional Office for Science and Technology for Latin America and the Caribbean, ROSTLAC, Montevideo, Uruguay, pp 210.

Grunow, J., 1954: Die Niederschlagsmessung Mit Hangparallelen Auffandflachen Methode, Erfahrungen, Folgerungen. Publ. No.36 de l’Association Internationale d’Hydrologie, Assemblee Generale de Rome, pp 322-334. [Precipitation measurement with the slope-parallel surface method, experiences, conclusions.]

Grunow, J., 1957: Vergleichende Messungen Des Nebelniederschlags. General Assembly of Toronto, International Association of Scientific Hydrology, three – 14 September, 1957, Volume 2 Groundwater Symposium Vegetation Symposium Dew, published 1958, pp 485-501.

Grunow, J., 1959: The Productiveness of Fog Precipitation in Relation to the Cloud Droplet Spectrum. Physics of Precipitation, Proceedings of the Cloud Physics Conference Woods Hole, Massachusetts 3 – 5 June, 1959. AGU publication 746, 1960, pp 110-117. [Hohenpeissenberg fog collector discussed.]

Grunow, J., 1965: Die Niederschlagszuckhaltung in einem Fichtenbestand am Hohenpeisenberg und ihre mestechnische Erfassung. Forstwissenschaftliches Centralblatt, 1965-1966, pp 212-22. [Precipitation retention in a spruce stand on the Hohenpeisenberg and its measurement.]

Gurnell, A.M., 1976: A Note on the Contribution of Fog Drip to Streamflow. Weather, 31, No. 4, pp 121 – 126.

Hamilton III, William J, Henschel, Joh R., and Mary K. Seely 2003: Fog Collection by Namib Desert Beetles. South African Journal of Science, vol. 99, no. 3-4, pp. 181

Harr, R.D., 1982: Fog Drip in the Bull Run Municipal Watershed, Oregon. Water Resources Bulletin, American Water Resources Association, Vol 18, No 5, October, pp 785 – 789.

Hayes, G.L., 1944: A Method of Measuring Rainfall on Windy Slopes. Monthly Weather Review, 72, No 2, pp 111 – 114.

Hendershot, W.H., F. Courchesne and R.S. Schemenauer, 1992: Soil acidification along a topographic gradient on Roundtop Mountain, Quebec, Canada. Water, Air & Soil Pollution (USA, California, Hawaii), 61, 235-242.

Holmes, R., J. D. Rivera and E. de la Jara, 2015: Large fog collectors: New strategies for collection efficiency and structural response to wind pressure. Atmospheric Research, 151, pp 236 – 249.

Hori, T., 1953: Studies on Fogs – In Relation to Fog Preventing Forest. Institute of Low-Temperature Science, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan, pp 86. [This is an important early work carried out in Japan documenting the interaction between forests and fog.]

Hutley, L. B., D.  Doley, D. J. Yates and A. Boonsaner, 1997: Water Balance of an Australian Subtropical Rain Forest at Altitude: The Ecological and Physiological Significance of Intercepted Cloud and Fog. Australian Journal of Botany, 45, pp 311 – 329. [Queensland, Australia]

Hurst, G. W. 1959: Collection of water from Cloud at Gibraltar. Of the Institution of Water Engineers, 13, pp 341 – 352.

Igawa, M., K. Matsumura and H. Okochi, 2002: High Frequency and Large Deposition of Acid Fog on High Elevation Forest. Environmental Science and Technology, 36,No 1, pp 1-6. [Measurements were made in Japan.]

Ingraham, N., 2001: The Hydrologic Origin of Fog Water: A Stable Isotopic Analysis. Conference Proceedings Volume, 2nd International Conference on Fog and Fog Collection. Eds. R.S. Schemenauer and H. Puxbaum, St. John’s, Canada, 15-20 July, 2001, ISBN 0-9683887-1-X, pp 369 – 372.

Jakob, D. J., R. T. Wang and R. C. Flagan, 1984: Fogwater Collector Design and Characterization. Environmental Science and Technology, 18, No 11, pp 827-833. [Rotating arm fog collectors.]

Jaeschke, W. Und K.H. Enderle, editors, 1988: Chemistry and Physics of Fogwater Collection. Workshop, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, 16 – 17 December 1986, pp 170. [Results of comparisons of passive and active fog water collectors. Also, comparison of the collection of water for chemical analysis. This is a good detailed review of the science as of 1986.]

Jordan, T.D., 1984: A Handbook of Gravity Flow Water Systems for Small Communities, Intermediate Technology Publications, an NGO, 1984, pp 128.

Joslin, J. D., S. F. Mueller and M. H. Wolfe: Tests of Models of Cloudwater Deposition to Forest Canopies Using Artificial and Living Collectors. Atmospheric Environment, 24A, No 12, pp 3007 – 3019.

Juvik, J.O. and D. Nullet, 1995: Comments on “A Proposed Standard Fog Collector for Use in High Elevation Regions”. J. Appl. Meteor., 34, 2108-2110. [ These are comments on the Schemenauer and Cereceda, 1994, paper “A Proposed Standard Fog Collector for Use in High-Elevation Regions”, which can be found in the Overview Section of this library. A reply to these comments by Schemenauer and Cereceda, 1995, can be found in this section of the library.]

Kassas, M., 1956: The Mist Oasis of Erkwit, Sudan. Journal of Ecology, 44, pp 180 – 194.

Kerfoot, O. and J. S. G. McCulloch, 1962: The Interception and Condensation of Atmospheric Moisture by Forest Canopies. Eighth Commonwealth Forestry Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 30 June, pp 9. {Early review.]

Kittredge, J., 1948: Fog Drip. Forest Influences, McGraw-Hill Book Company, pp 115-119.

Kramer, M. and L. Schutz, 1994: On the Collection Efficiency of a Rotating Arm Collector And Its Applicability to Cloud and Fog Water Sampling. J. Aerosol Science, 25, No 1, pp 137 – 148.

Langmuir, Irving, and Blodgett, Katherine B. 1945 and 1946: “Mathematical Investigation of Water Droplet Trajectories“. Discussion of Report, January 1945, published three times with similar titles, in NACA Icing Publications on 26 April 2022.

Lehnert, L. W., B. Thies and J. Bendix, 2020: A new high spatial resolution low stratus/fog retrieval for the Atacama Desert. Remote Sensing of the Environment 236 (2020) 111445., pp 11.

Lelieveld, J., P. J. Crutzen and H. Rodhe, 1989: Zonal Average Cloud Characteristics for Global Atmospheric Chemistry Modelling. Department of Meteorology, Report CM – 76, June, pp 60.

Levi, M., 1967: Fog in Israel. J. Earth-Sciences, 16, No. 1, pp 7-21.

Lin, Z.Q., R.S. Schemenauer, P.H. Schuepp, N.N. Barthakur and G. Kennedy, 1997: Airborne metal pollutants in high elevation forests of southern Quebec, Canada, and their likely source regions.   J. Agriculture and Forest Meteorology, 87, 41-54.

Lin, Z.Q., P.H. Schuepp, R.S. Schemenauer and G.G. Kennedy, 1995: Trace metal contamination in and on Balsam Fir (Abies Balsamea (L) Mill.) foliage in southern Quebec, Canada.  Water, Air & Soil Pollution, 81, 175-191.

List, R., 1968: Size and Characteristics of Air-Borne Solids. In, Smithsonian Meteorological Tables, p 397. [This table gives the particle size, settling velocity, concentration in air, and laws of settling in relation to particle size. It is a useful and interesting overview of particles from the submicron aerosol size to raindrop size.]

Liu, W., F. Meng, Y. Zhang, Y. Liu and H. Li, 2004: Fog Drip and Fog Chemistry in the Tropical Seasonal Rain Forest of Xishuangbanna, South-West China. Tropical Montane Cloud Forest Conference, July 2004, Hilo, Hawaii, pp 16.

Lovett, G.M. and J.D. Kinsman, 1990: Atmospheric Pollutant Deposition to High Elevation Ecosystems. Atmos. Environ. 24A, No 11, pp 2767 – 2786.

Lopez-Garcia, D. and J. Rivera, 2013: Mechanical Characteristics of Raschel Mesh and Their Applications to the Design of Large Fog Collectors. . Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Fog, Fog Collection and Dew, Yoko Hama, Japan, 19 – 24 may, p 17.

McIntosh, R.P., 1958: Fog Drip: An Anticipation of Ecology. Ecology, 39, p 159. [This includes quotes from Gilbert White’s article in 1778.]

Mindas, J. and J. Skvarenina, 1998: Fog Occurrence and Chemistry in Mountainous Regions of Slovakia. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Fog and Fog Collection, Schemenauer, R.S. and H. Bridgman, eds., Vancouver, Canada, 19-24 July, ISBN 0-9683887-0-1, pp. 361 – 364.

Mileta, M., 2001: Fog Water Collection at the Mountain Velebit Near the Adriatic Sea. Conference Proceedings Volume, 2nd International Conference on Fog and Fog Collection. Eds. R.S. Schemenauer and H. Puxbaum, St. John’s, Canada, 15-20 July, 2001, ISBN 0-9683887-1-X, pp 265 – 268.

Mitchell, D. et al. (7 authors), 2020: Fog and fauna of the Namib Desert: past and future. ECOSPHERE ❖ www.esajournals.org, January 2020, volume 11 (1), article e02996, pp 40.

Nespor, V. and B. Sevruk, 1999: Estimation of Wind Induced Error of Rainfall Gauge Measurements Using a Numerical Simulation. J. Atmos. And Oceanic Tech., 16, pp 450 – 464.

Oura, H., 1953: On the Capture of Fog Particles by a Forest (I). In, Studies on Fogs, In Relation to Fog-Preventing Forest, edited by T. Hori, The Institute of Low-Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan, pp 239-252.

Oura, H., 1953: On the Capture of Fog Particles by a Forest (II). In, Studies on Fogs, In Relation to Fog-Preventing Forest, edited by T. Hori, The Institute of Low-Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan, pp 253-259.

Post, D. And H. A. Bridgman, 1991: Fog and Rainwater Composition in Rural SE Australia. J. Atmos. Chem., 13, pp 83 – 95.

Prada S. N. and M. O. Da Silva 2001: Fog Precipitation on the Island of Madeira (Portugal). Environmental Geology, 41, pp 384 – 389.

Rivera, J.D., Aerodynamic collection efficiency of fog water collectors, Atmos. Res. (2011), doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2011.08.005.

Robineau, B and M. Robineau, 1988: And the Desert Shall Bloom Again. Waterlines, 7, No 2, pp 6 – 8. [Ancient agriculture in the Negev desert using managed precipitation runoff.]

Rubner, K., 1932: Der Nebelniederschlag im Wald und seine Messung. Tharandter Forstliches Jahrbuch, 83: pp 121 – 149. English Text. [Translated from German by A.H. Krappe.]

Rubner, K., 1935: Fog Precipitation in Forests and Its Measurement II. Tharandter Forstliches Jahrbuch, 86 (6): pp 330 – 342.

Rubner, K., 1935: Der Nebelniederschlag im Wald und seine Messung. Tharandter Forstliches Jahrbuch, 83, pp 121-149 and 86 (6): pp 330 – 342.

Rubner, K., 1935: Der Nebelniederschlag im Wald und seine Messung II. Tharandter Forstliches Jahrbuch, 86 (6): pp 330 – 342. German Text.

Schemenauer, R.S. and P. Cereceda, 1995: Reply to: Comments on “A   proposed standard fog collector for use in high elevation regions.” J. Appl. Meteor., 34, 2111-2112. [Response to Juvik and Nullet, 1995, J. Appl. Meteor., 34, 2108-2110.]

Schemenauer, R.S., C.M. Banic and N. Urquizo, 1995: High elevation fog and precipitation chemistry in southern Quebec, Canada. Atmospheric Environment, 29, 2235-2252.

Schemenauer, R.S. 1999: High Elevation Fog Sites. FogQuest Newsletter #1.

Schemenauer, R. S., I. Gultepe, and M. Witiw, 2015: Blind vision: the impact of fog on ecosystems and society. Meteorology Technology International, April, pp 50-54. http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/574f8129#/574f8129/1.

Schuepp, P.H., D.N. McGerrigle, H.G. Leighton, G. Paquette, R.S. Schemenauer and S. Kermasha, 1988: Observations on wet and dry deposition to foliage at a high elevation site. In, NATO Advanced Research Workshop, Acid Deposition at High Elevation Sites, M.H. Unsworth and D. Fowler (eds.),  Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 615-637.

Shanyengana, E.S., R.D. Sanderson, M.K. Seely and R.S. Schemenauer, 2003: Testing greenhouse shade nets for the collection of fog for use as a water supply.  J. Water Supply: Research & Technology-AQUA (London, UK), 52.3, 237-241.

Sobik, M. and M. Blas, 2013: Frequency of fog-a global outlook. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Fog, Fog Collection and Dew, Yokohama, Japan, p 103.

Spielman, L. A., 1977: Particle Capture from Low-Speed Laminar Flows. Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech. 1977. 9: 297-319.

Tan, Fibor J, Maria Angelica P. Estanislao, Angelica Mhae A. Gregorio, and Ivan Jeff D. Navea. The potential of fog harvesting in tropical highlands as an alternative water resource: the case of Atok, Benguet, Philippines. E3S Web of Conferences 117, 00007 (2019), pp 6.

Unsworth, M. H., N. W. Shakespeare, A. E. Milner and T. S. Ganendra, 1979: The Frequency of Fog in the Midlands of England. Weather, February 1979, 34, No 2, pp 72 – 77.

Walmsley, J.L., R.S. Schemenauer and H.A. Bridgman, 1996: A method for estimating the hydrologic input from fog in mountainous terrain.   J. Applied Meteor., 35, 2237-2249.

Walmsley, J.L., W.R. Burrows and R.S. Schemenauer, 1999: The use of routine observations  to calculate liquid water content in summertime high-elevation fog.  J. Applied Meteorology, 33, 369-384.

White, G., 1776: Gilbert White’s observations on fog precipitation in England. Written to the honourable Daines Barrington, Selborne, 7 February 1776. Republished in The Journal of Meteorology, volume 3, number 28, April 1978, pp 115-117.

Winston, C., 1991: Water Quality Considerations in the Use of Fog Water Collection Systems As an Alternative Water Supply in Arid Areas. Report for Dr. Robert Schemenauer, Atmospheric Environment Service, Environment Canada, pp 55. [Provides information on water quality requirements in different countries.]

Yu, X., 2001: The Collection Effect of Trees on Fog Water. Conference Proceedings Volume, 2nd International Conference on Fog and Fog Collection. Eds. R.S. Schemenauer and H. Puxbaum, St. John’s, Canada, 15-20 July, 2001, ISBN 0-9683887-1-X, pp 201 – 203.